Mechanical and Electrostatic filters

As mechanical filters load with particles over time, their collection efficiency and pressure drop typically increase. Eventually, the increased pressure drop significantly inhibits airflow, and the filters must be replaced. For this reason, pressure drop across mechanical filters is often monitored because it indicates when to replace filters.

Conversely, electrostatic filters, which are composed of polarized fibers, may lose their collection efficiency over time or when exposed to certain chemicals, aerosols, or high, relative humidity. Pressure drop in an electrostatic filter generally increases at a slower rate than it does in a mechanical filter of similar efficiency.

Thus, unlike the mechanical filter, pressure drop for the electrostatic filter is a poor indicator of the need to change filters. When selecting an HVAC filter, you should keep these differences between mechanical and electrostatic filters in mind because they will have an impact on your filter’s performance (collection efficiency over time), as well as on maintenance requirements (change-out schedules).


Fine Fiber Media Air Filters

 

Coarse Fiber Media Air Filters

Fine fiber media filters
  coarse fiber media air filters
Fine fiber media operates under a mechanical removal principle, and fibers do not lose efficiency over time. Their initial efficiency is indistinguishable from their actual efficiency over life, providing the user with the particle removal performance they have specified.    Coarse/electret fibers, because of their large size, are easier and less expensive to produce. Their primary effect of particle capture requires a charge imparted on the fiber during the manufacturing process. As the charge dissipates because of particulate loading, so does the efficiency of the filter. This is a critical condition, as 99% of all particles are under 1 micron in size — the range where these types of filters suffer critical loss of efficiency.

The ANSI/ASHRAE 52.2-1999 Standard includes an introductory paragraph that states:

"Some fibrous media air filters have electrostatic charges that may be either natural or imposed upon the media during manufacturing. Such filters may demonstrate high efficiency when clean and a drop in efficiency during their actual use cycle. The initial conditioning step of the dust-loading procedure described in this standard may affect the efficiency of the filter but not as much as would be observed in actual service. Therefore, the minimum efficiency during test may be higher than that achieved during actual use."

The EN779 : 2002 standard states:

"Certain types of filter media rely on electrostatic effects to achieve high efficiencies at low resistance to air flow. Exposure to some types of challenge, such as combustion particles in normal atmospheric air or oil mist, may neutralise such charges with the result that filter performance suffers. It is important that the users are aware of the potiential for performance degradation when loss of charge occurs. It is also important that means be available for identifying cases where the potential exists. The normative test procedure, described in annex A, provides techniques for identifying this type of behaviour. This procedure is used to determine whether the filter efficiency is dependent on the electrostatic removal mechanism and to provide quantitative information about the importance of the electrostatic removal"

These paragraphs clearly indicates that air filter experts recognize the effect that time has on the efficiency of filters which rely on passive electrostatic charges. Moreover, there are concerns about the potentially inaccurate test results which may occur when applying the standard to coarse fibre filters that rely on an electrostatic charge.

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