腐蚀的影响有哪些?

腐蚀的一些影响包括自然和历史古迹的显著损毁。空气污染可导致腐蚀且在全球范围内日益严重。

空气污染的一个后果很少被提及,那就是腐蚀对全世界人造材料的影响。随着工业化国家空气污染水平的上升,腐蚀程度也相应增加。但这不仅会影响纪念碑,还会影响住所附近的东西,比如:车辆、烤肉架、户外家具和家用工具等。

腐蚀还会使重要的基础设施发生老化,如:钢筋高速公路、输电塔、停车设施和桥梁。简而言之,腐蚀是一个需要进一步研究的主题,这样您便可以了解到这种隐藏的破坏如何影响您的生活。

什么是腐蚀?

根据EonCoat的解释,腐蚀是材料与环境发生化学反应引起腐化的过程。当暴露的表面与气体或液体接触时会发生金属腐蚀,而暴露于暖温、酸和盐会加速该过程。1

尽管腐蚀一词用于描述金属腐化,但所有天然和人造材料都会腐化,空气中的污染物水平可以加速这一过程。

其原因是由于液体和固体之间的化学反应会产生空气污染物,例如:颗粒物质(PM)。此类液体和固体(包括盐和黑碳)可以与金属内的分子相互作用并加速衰变。

事实上,腐蚀医生已确认电厂排放和车辆排放产生的二氧化硫是腐蚀的最大因素之一。(2

高浓度的二氧化硫会通过毁坏树叶和抑制未来生长来破坏树木和植物。

二氧化硫不仅会损坏金属和其他材料,还会对健康带来不利影响。美国环境保护署(EPA)发现,短期接触二氧化硫可能会加重哮喘症状并使呼吸出现困难。(3

大气腐蚀研究更透彻

最近的大气腐蚀研究有助于揭示空气污染物如何直接影响工业城市环境中的金属。

工业城市环境中,很多研究人员开始研究金属及其合金的大气腐蚀,因为空气中腐蚀性污染物浓度很高。(4

换句话说,研究人员推测,大城市的空气污染会加速腐蚀过程,而且与污染处于较低水平时相比,会加速金属老化。

为了验证该理论,研究人员将各种金属样品暴露在工业城市环境中12个月,以确定空气中颗粒物对腐蚀速率的影响。他们选择了城市中污染物含量高的区域进行测试。

该研究发现,在冬季污染水平最高时,金属腐蚀的速度要快得多。污染加重是由附近的发电厂和供热厂以及车辆和寒冷天气广泛使用的加热炉产生的较高排放量造成。

加速腐蚀的最常见污染物是二氧化硫、二氧化碳、灰尘和湿度。

腐蚀的影响

那么腐蚀会对您的日常生活造成什么影响呢?

  • Vortex Energy Saver确定了腐蚀的一些直接影响,包括:(5)
  • 商用飞机受损可能导致飞行中出现问题
  • 输油管道受损可能导致代价高昂的破裂危险,从而造成严重的环境破坏。
  • 桥梁支撑受损可能导致桥梁损坏 从铁腐蚀中释放污染空气的有害污染物
  • 修理或更换受损家用设备的费用

我们知道许多商业都容易受到腐蚀的影响,如石油和天然气、建筑和电子产品,来自康斐尔美国分子过滤公司部门经理

Trent Thiel说。如果没有控制方法,可能会出现灾难性的设备故障和结构损坏。这就是分子过滤对于去除空气中腐蚀物质和确保结构完整性至关重要的原因。

防止家庭腐蚀

有几种方法可以防止家庭腐蚀。首先,您可以对所有金属进行表面处理,以保护其免受空气污染物的侵害。其次,您可以对所有金属产品镀锌,使其具有很高的耐腐蚀性。第三,您可以投资高效空气过滤器,以改善室内空气品质,消除促进腐蚀过程的有害污染物。

What Is Corrosion?

Corrosion is the process of decay on a material caused by a chemical reaction with its environment. Corrosion of metal occurs when an exposed surface comes in contact with a gas or liquid, and the process is accelerated by exposure to warm temperature, acids, and salts.

 

Although the word ‘corrosion’ is used to describe the decay of metals, all natural and man-made materials are subject to decay, and the level of pollutants in the air can speed up this process.

 

The reason is that airborne contaminant such as corrosive particulate matter (PM) are created because of the chemical reactions between liquids and solids. These same liquids and solids, including salt and black carbon, can interact with the molecules within metals and accelerate decay.  Additionally, gaseous acidic contaminants have a major role in corrosion of materials, either directly or indirectly as precursors of corrosive particulate matter (PM).

 

In fact, sulfur dioxide that is generated by power plant and vehicle emissions is one of the biggest contributors to corrosion. Sulfur dioxide is particularly aggressive towards copper contacts used in electronic equipment.

 

High levels of sulfur dioxide can also damage trees and plants by destroying foliage and inhibiting future growth. A recent analysis from Greenpeace also states that high levels of sulfur dioxide result in disastrous air pollution and premature deaths as well. (1)

 

In other words, sulfur dioxide doesn’t just help degrade metal and other materials; it also results in disastrous air pollution has some harmful health effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that short-term exposure to sulfur dioxide can worsen asthma symptoms and make breathing difficult. (2)

 

Atmospheric Corrosion Study Sheds More Light

A recent atmospheric corrosion study has helped to shed more light about how airborne pollutants directly affect metals in an industrial city environment.

Researchers began with the thesis that atmospheric corrosion of metals and their alloys is very common in the industrial city environment due to the high concentration of corrosive pollutants in the air. (3)

In other words, researchers theorized that air pollution in a major city would accelerate the corrosion process and help degrade metals faster than if the pollution was at a lower level.

To test this theory, researchers exposed various metal samples to an industrial city environment for 12 months to determine the effect of airborne particulates on the rate of corrosion. They chose an area within the test city that had a high level of pollutants.

The study found that metals corroded at a much faster rate during the winter when pollution levels were at their highest. This increase in pollution was caused by higher emissions generated by nearby power plants and heating plants, as well as from vehicle emissions and heating furnaces that were in wide use due to the cold weather.

The most common pollutants that accelerated corrosion were sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, dust and humidity.

Additional contaminant resulting in high levels of corrosions include hydrogen sulfide generated by waste facilities, geothermal activity or anaerobic digestion of organic waste; nitrogen dioxide from traffic and combustion processes, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, acetic acid (the vinegar molecule) and process chemicals released to the environment. 

Corrosion Hazards for Electronic Equipment

Corrosion induced equipment failure has been a fact since the mechanical telephone switch centres in the beginning of the 19th century. 

The extensive use of computers and electronic equipment in today’s society together with increasing pollution, especially in large cities and in industrial locations put even higher demands on finding solutions to lower the risk of failure.

Currently, communication and data transfer facilities are of great importance. One way to reduce the cost for cooling is to use “free cooling” or “air-side economizers” which refers to systems that allow outdoor air to by filters pass into the room to provide direct cooling when outdoor temperature and humidity permits. Download our White paper on Corrosion Hazards for Electronic Equipment here

The Effects of Corrosion

So what are the effects of corrosion that could actually affect your daily life or working environment?

Direct effects of corrosion may include: 

 
  • Damage to commercial airplanes or vehicle electronics

  • Damage to hard disks and computers used to control complicated processes (e.g. power plants, petrochemical facilities or pulp and paper mills).

  • Damage to server rooms and data centres.

  • Damage to  museum artefacts

  • Costs of repairing or replacing household equipment that fails

“We know that many commercial industries such as oil and gas, paper mills, construction and electronics used in a multitude of processes are vulnerable to the effects of corrosion,” stated Camfil Molecular Filtration Segment Manager. “Without control methods, there is likely to be equipment and structural failure that can have catastrophic consequences. That’s why molecular filtration is so vital to removing corrosive agents from the air and ensuring structural integrity.” Read more about corrosion control in our brochure. 

Preventing Corrosion

There are several ways you can prevent corrosion from pollutants that cannot be removed at the source. First, you can use surface treatments on all metals to protect them from airborne pollutants. Second, you can galvanize all metal products, which makes them more resistant to corrosion. And third, you can invest in high-efficiency air filters (compact filtersscrubbers and media) to improve your indoor air quality and eliminate harmful pollutants that contribute to corrosion processes